A Companion to Philosophical Logic by Dale Jacquette

By Dale Jacquette

This number of newly comissioned essays by way of foreign individuals bargains a consultant assessment of crucial advancements in modern philosophical logic.

  • Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic logic.
  • Surveys significant tendencies and provides unique insights.

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20) and paid no further attention to this doctrine. ’ The German logician Ploucquet (1716–90) thought that in an affirmative proposition the predicate cannot be different from the subject. ’ In the same vein George Bentham (1800–84), in a commentary on Whately’s book, symbolized ‘All X are Y’ as ‘X in toto = Y ex parte’ or ‘All of X = Part of Y’ (Bentham 1827: 133). The doctrine is now usually associated with the name of William Hamilton (1788–1856) who disingenuously claimed to have discovered it and gave it wide currency.

Two other topics that stand out in this respect are the question whether God’s existence can be demonstrated and the treatments of the various Names of God. Thomas Aquinas does not enjoy a high reputation as a logician; his fame rests on his contribution to metaphysics and the philosophy of mind. Nevertheless, his Summa Theologica contains much that is of great relevance for contemporary philosophy of logic and language. Thus, for instance, in his discussion of the Names of God in Question 13 Aquinas anticipates Frege’s ideas concerning names with different modes of presentation of the same object.

The development of physics, for instance, can be understood as such a chain, connecting Newton in the seventeenth century with Einstein in the twentieth. Logic did not progress in this way; no dominant theory commanded it (a tapestry more than a chain) until the first decades of the twentieth century. No self-sustaining internal theory held sway before then, nor was there much rigor externally imposed. Even Aristotle, as one commentator put it, was more venerated than read, and most versions of syllogistic logic proposed after the Middle Ages did not measure up to the sophistication of his own system.

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