A first course in continuum mechanics: for physical and by Y. C. Fung

By Y. C. Fung

Revision of a vintage textual content via a distinctive writer. Emphasis is on challenge formula and derivation of governing equations. re-creation beneficial properties elevated emphasis on purposes. New bankruptcy covers long term adjustments in fabrics below rigidity.

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At a stress levels over 8 MPa, the membrane can rupture in less than 2 hours. Water absorbed by Nafion can plasticize the membrane at temperature below 90°C [6]. In Figure 4, the creep responses at 90% RH and 5% RH are compared with that at 25°C and 50%RH. At 90%RH, the creep strain increased more than that at 50% RH with a similar stress level and the FEM results are in good agreement with experimental results. Creep is considered thermally activated process in most engineering materials, but hydration factor plays a significant role in creep response for Nafion membrane.

In practice, the stress relaxation curve determined at certain temperature can be horizontally shifted to another temperature when presented in logarithmic scale. The beauty of this time and temperature superposition lies in that it can avoid the long term tests on creep or stress relaxation of polymers at a certain temperature, by testing the material at a higher temperature but with shorter time. The WLF time-temperature superposition has been extensively used in studying creep and stress relaxation of polymeric materials.

In the scientific community some studies have been already conducted on the different forms of energy emitted during the failure of brittle materials. They are based on the signals captured by the acoustic emission measurement systems, or on the detection of the electromagnetic charge. But only very recently piezonuclear neutron emissions from very brittle rock specimens in compression have been discovered [1-3]. In this paper, the authors analyse this phenomenon from an experimental point of view.

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