By J. J. Kipling
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This argument appears to apply mainly, though not exclusively, to narrow-pored charcoals, about which discussion continues. It is still claimed that, in charcoals of this type, most of the pores are too narrow to admit of capillary condensation, 29 unless the measured "pore diameters" are really the diameters of the narrow openings to much wider "caves". Hansen and Hansen also calculated 21 that for adsorption from the system benzene-ethyl alcohol, the total volume of adsorbate, expressed as a volume of liquid, was almost constant for the whole range of composition of the liquid mixtures.
The Experimental Approach Williams suggested the first experimental approach. If, in a closed vessel, the solid is suspended in the vapour above (and thus in equilibrium with) the liquid mixture (Fig. 3) it is possible to follow the change in concentra tion of the liquid by the normal methods and to measure the total amount of adsorbed material by weighing. 2) where w is the observed weight, and Μγ and M2 are the molecular weights of the two components respectively. It can generally be assumed that the equilibrium at the solid-adsorbate interface established in this way is the same as would be established by immersing the solid in the liquid.
19 The simplest further assumption which can be made is that the adsorbed layer is only one molecule thick. Thus one can refer to "monolayer adsorption" from solution, but the monolayer usually contains a mixture of the two components. Unless preferential adsorption is zero the 4. ADSORPTION FROM COMPLETELY MISCIBLE LIQUIDS molecular layer adjacent to the solid surface has a composition from that of the bulk liquid, but all subsequent layers are part of liquid. The same assumption was investigated by Guggenheim and in applying the Gibbs equation to adsorption at the liquid-vapour (see Chapter 11).