By D.R. Philpott, R.H. Barnard
Airplane Flight offers exact actual, instead of mathematical, descriptions of the rules of plane flight. This renowned textual content offers mechanical engineering and aeronautical engineering scholars an invaluable creation to the topic. The fourth version has been up-to-date to incorporate vital fresh advancements corresponding to unmanned air automobiles and the low orbit space-plane
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Extra resources for Aircraft Flight: A description of the physical principles of aircraft flight
In Fig. 3 we show in very simpliﬁed form, how this requirement of forming a closed circuit is met. In the diagram we see that the circulatory effect of the wing, which is known as the wing-bound vortex, turns at its ends to form a pair of real vortices, trailing from near the wing tips. The ring is completed by a so-called starting vortex downstream. These vortices do exist in reality and we can easily detect the trailing vortices in a wind tunnel by using a wool tuft which will rotate rapidly if placed in the appropriate position behind a model.
The torque reaction of the motor tends to rotate the fuselage in the opposite direction to that of the rotor, and on a conventional single rotor helicopter, a tail mounted propeller or fan is used to counteract this effect. The tail propeller, which is normally referred to as the tail rotor, wastes power, and is one cause of the poor efﬁciency of simple helicopters. A recent innovation is the so-called no-tail rotor (NOTAR) design in which the tail rotor is replaced by a jet of air which interacts with the main rotor downﬂow to produce the required torque.
23. It will be seen that the CL to angle of attack curve is not a straight line. The slender delta-winged Concorde was designed to ﬂy with separated conical vortex ﬂow in normal ﬂight conditions. The leading edge is sharp to encourage leading edge separation at moderate angles of attack. This conical vortex ﬂow may be thought of as being a form of controlled separation. When lift is generated in this way, the wing will not stall in the conventional sense, and the lift will continue to increase for angles of attack up to 40 degrees or so.