By Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto de Lemos
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Extra resources for Anaerobic reactors
The development of techniques for the evaluation of the microbial activity in anaerobic reactors is very important, especially of the methanogenic archaea, so that the biomass can be preserved and monitored. In this respect, several methods have been proposed to evaluate the anaerobic microbial activity, considering the assessment of the speciﬁc methanogenic activity (SMA). However, the precision of several methodologies was considered doubtful or too sophisticated for reproduction in laboratories.
In particular, the presence of low concentrations of copper, zinc and nickel in soluble state is considered highly toxic, and these salts are associated with most of the toxicity problems caused by metals in anaerobic treatment. The concentrations of the most toxic metals that can be tolerated in anaerobic treatment are related to the concentrations of sulﬁde available to be combined with the metals and then form insoluble sulﬁde salts. Sulﬁdes by themselves are very toxic to anaerobic treatment but, when combined with metals, they form insoluble salts that have no adverse effect.
The VFA concentration during the pH shock remained low. 1. 2. The pH rise was not signiﬁcant. The pH shock had a short duration. Alkalinity and buffer capacity The buffer capacity can be understood as the capacity of a solution to avoid changes in the pH. A buffer solution consists of a mixture of a weak acid and its corresponding salt, thus enabling the grouping of the ions H+ and OH− and avoiding both the increase and the decrease of the pH. The following generic equations are applied: HA + H2 O ⇔ H3 O+ + A− KA = H3 O− .