Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the by Ernest K. Yanful

By Ernest K. Yanful

The objective of the ebook is to debate environmental coverage and current northern and southern applied sciences and clinical equipment that deal with particular environmental difficulties affecting humanity usually, yet extra in particular, humans and ecosystems in constructing nations. The e-book includes chosen, refereed papers submitted to or offered on the First overseas convention on Environmental learn, know-how and coverage held in Accra, Ghana, July 17-19, 2007. the first objective of the convention was once to supply a discussion board for coverage makers, scientists, practitioners, and civil society advocates to debate grass-root environmental concerns, check efforts through govt equipment and determine what groups and company entities can do as a social accountability to mainstream environmental security for sustainable improvement. it's said that environmental learn, know-how purposes and coverage implementation were verified to enhance environmental sustainability and security in different constructed economies. The ebook argues that related earnings could be accomplished in constructing nations and nations in transition

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Chocolate manufacturing and transportation are relatively the most environmentally friendly of the life cycle stages, since their contributions to the impact categories considered were not very significant. The transportation stage is the least important in terms of environmental impacts, whilst chocolate manufacturing is intermediate between cocoa processing and transportation. 6 Conclusions and Recommendations This has been an initial investigation to identify and quantify the key environmental impacts associated with chocolate production in Ghana.

During the process, the ash is cooled down to 150 °C and the process of energy exchange leads to the production of hot steam. The combustion of 1 t of straw produces about 5 t of steam. This is equivalent to about 50% of the energy produced by the similar amount of coal. The liquid resulting from the hydrolysis of straw is rich in potassium, which can be used as an agricultural fertilizer. However, the presence of sodium in the liquid can be harmful to the soil. Either a special ion exchange process can be applied to remove sodium or the hydrolysis can be conducted using a high water to straw ratio such that the amount of sodium can be tolerated.

Early implementation of these strategies across the country would further enhance the environmental friendliness of cocoa production in Ghana. Future studies could expand the system boundary to include the product distribution and consumption phase of the life cycle and also include the environmental impacts coming from the production of packaging, and other ingredients in chocolate such as sugar and milk. This will provide a comprehensive picture of the overall environmental burdens associated with the life cycle of the product.

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