By Philip Jowett, Stephen Walsh
This can be a complete consultant to the armies that fought a devastating and decisive clash within the japanese Mediterranean among the 2 international Wars of the 20 th century. From the preliminary Greek invasion, designed to "liberate" the 100,000 ethnic Greeks that lived in Western Turkey and had performed for hundreds of years, to Mustapha Kemal Ataturk's really effective formation of a countrywide govt and a standard military, this was once a warfare that formed the geopolitical panorama of the Mediterranean to at the present time. It gave delivery to the trendy Turkish nation, displacing thousands and developing sour stories of atrocities devoted by way of each side. Augmented with very infrequent photos and gorgeous illustrations, this ground-breaking identify explores the background, association, and visual appeal of the armies, either guerilla and standard, that fought during this bloody struggle.
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Additional resources for Armies of the Greek-Turkish War 1919-22
A military-style jacket is coupled with civilian striped trousers, ex-Ottoman Army strapped gaiters and boots, and binoculars. 65mm Mauser M1903 rifle; one photo shows him also armed with a Steyr semi-automatic pistol captured from a Greek officer. E2: Kara Fatma, 1921 This famous female irregular leader was celebrated in Nationalist propaganda during and after the war. She wears the kufiya Arab headdress common in the southern and south-eastern provinces of Anatolia; sometimes she wore a civilian jacket, but on this occasion she has obtained a Demirci (‘The Blacksmith’) Mehmet Efe was a leader of the Kuva-Yi Milliye irregulars fighting against the Greeks early in the war; here he wears the traditional dress of his home region – compare with Plate E3.
The collar of his light khaki cotton summer tunic bears the black branch-of-service tabs of the artillery, and his three rank stripes are displayed on both forearms. The trousers are in winter-weight woollen material, and are worn with woollen puttees. Some Greek weaponry and equipment in 1919–22 came from French sources; this man has an 8mm Mle 1892 artillery carbine and leather equipment from stores left behind in Salonika in 1918. A4: Lance-corporal, Cavalry Division, 1921 This senior soldier from the Cavalry Division wears the French Adrian M1915 steel helmet; like most of those supplied to the Greek Army in 1919–22 this is plain, with no applied frontal badge.
His hat is a black oilskin version of the new peakless képi which may even be an ex-Navy item, and has a metal star-and-crescent badge. Other lancer units wore the new model of cylindrical cloth cap, or the older lambswool kalpak. The bamboo lance was an effective weapon in the open warfare of the summer 1922 campaign; he also has a slung Turkish Mauser M1903 rifle, and ex-Ottoman Army cavalry pouches on his pre-1918 belt. G4: Volunteer, Giresun Bodyguard, 1921 This man is a member of Mustafa Kemal’s tough bodyguard unit, which was made up of Topol Osman’s Black Sea volunteers who had previously fought in a ruthless counterinsurgency role.