By Johannes Simon Vrouwenvelder
This booklet relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane components with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling.
High caliber consuming water should be produced with membrane filtration techniques like opposite osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). because the international call for for clean fresh water is expanding, those membrane applied sciences are more and more very important. essentially the most critical difficulties in RO/NF purposes is biofouling - over the top progress of biomass - affecting the functionality of the RO/NF structures. this is often end result of the elevate in strain drop throughout membrane components (feed-concentrate channel), the lessen in membrane permeability or the rise in salt passage. those phenomena bring about the necessity to raise the feed strain to take care of consistent creation and to wash the membrane parts chemically. This e-book relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane components with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling. It makes a speciality of the improvement of biomass within the feed-concentrate (feed-spacer) channel and its impression on strain drop and stream distribution. it may be used to strengthen an essential technique to regulate biofouling in spiral wound membrane platforms. so much previous and current ways to keep watch over biofouling haven't been very profitable. an summary of numerous power complementary ways to resolve biofouling is given and an built-in technique for biofouling regulate is proposed. Read more...
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Additional info for Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems
2002) or without specifying the biological parameters (Hamida and Moch, 1996). In many studies it was considered that appearance of microorganisms was an indication of (advent) biofouling on the membrane surfaces. However, microorganisms are present on all surfaces in contact with water and their presence is not indicative for biofouling. Other studies showed that microorganisms are commonly observed on water-exposed surfaces, even in pure water systems (Mittelman, 1991). The presence of microorganisms was already observed on membranes after a short contact time, in the order of minutes (Ridgway and Flemming, 1996 and Schaule, 1992).
Our studies at plants with ΔNPD Ն 50% demonstrated that curative cleanings were not effective in restoring the original ΔNPD and membrane elements had to be replaced prematurely in all cases. Prevention of fouling by proper pretreatment is preferred over curative actions like cleanings. Probably, future systematic studies on membrane cleaning using appropriate parameters enable the evaluation and selection of chemical cleanings (procedures and chemicals). , 1984 and Ebrahim, 1994). Al-Amoudi and Lovitt (2007) reported that very few papers on cleaning of membrane to regenerate membrane performance have Biofouling studies in NF and RO installations 41 been published and there is an urgent need for extensive research.
Biofilms can be found on rocks and pebbles at the bottom of most streams or rivers and on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque. Biofilms grow in hot acidic pools and on glaciers in Antarctica. Benificial biofilms serve in the water and waste water industry, in bioremediation applications and industrial biotechnology (Bryers, 2000). For example, many sewage treatment plants include a treatment stage in which waste water passes over biofilms grown on filters, which extract and convert organic compounds.