Biology: An Illustrated Guide to Science by Gareth Price

By Gareth Price

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Extra resources for Biology: An Illustrated Guide to Science

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Reduction involves losing oxygen or gaining an electron. ● Redox reactions usually involve the transfer of energy between chemicals. ● reduced 4 oxidized energy Energy transfers High energy electrons are fed into the electron transfer chain at one end and pass through a series of redox reactions until they are linked with oxygen to make water (H20). Remember that although we talk of electrons moving, we are really moving hydrogen ions. ● At various stages in this process, enough energy is released to build adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).

Ameba secretes a cyst wall. Binary fission In Amoeba proteus (ameba), binary fission begins when the pseudopodia (false feet) are withdrawn to make a slightly more spherical shape. ● The nucleus divides by mitosis to produce two identical nuclei. These move to opposite ends of the cell. ● The ameba constricts around the middle and forms two daughter cells. ● Multiple fission Daughter nuclei separate, and cytoplasm constricts. In multiple fission the ameba withdraws its pseudopodia to form a more spherical shape as in binary fission but then secretes a wall around the cell to form a cyst.

Thymine DNA molecule Enzymes and ATP break hydrogen bonds and DNA chains separate. Free nucleotides find their complementary bases. Two new identical DNA molecules result. 43 DNA transcription UNITY Key words DNA transcription deoxyribose (five-carbon sugar) Guanine Adenine phosphate Cytosine Thymine Uricil (substituted for thymine in RNA) DNA enzyme messenger RNA nucleotide ribosome R Types of nucleic acid R free RNA nucleotides in nucleoplasm transcription transfer RNA There are two major groups of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

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