By Professor Dr. Alvaro Macieira-Coelho (auth.)
This quantity supplies the reader a complete review of the basic and organic features of getting older. First, the sphere is defined from a ancient viewpoint. Then, the writer analyzes the 3 primary mechanisms of survival: strength usage, molecular and mobile redundancy, and the association of data. The genetics of getting older is reviewed rejecting a few simple-minded interpretations. A bridge is demonstrated among the molecular, mobile, and tissue variations which have been suggested within the literature, and the scientific manifestations of the getting older syndrome. particular relevance is given to the matter of the meant organization among cancers and getting older, giving a brand new interpretation of that relationship.
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Lints observed that external factors such as larval density occurring during the time of gestation can influence life span. The duration of diapause, a state of arrested development, influences longevity. Diapause has been experimentally induced in monarch butterflies and grasshoppers, doubling in each case the adult longevity (Tatar and Yin 2001). The manipulation of longevity through variations of the duration of diapause could be a common denominator of the regulation of life span in butterflies, grasshoppers, flies, and worms.
A fourth level of organization is created during chromosome condensation before mitosis. Moreover, the genetic determinants created by base pair sequence are not limited to the approximately 5% of the human genome containing the expressed genes. Amplification of reiterated sequences for instance, are known to be the cause of pathologies. Species differences in highly repetitive satellite DNA are well known ; between mouse and rat for instance, the differences in subunit organization and nucleotide sequence, are striking (Igo-Kemenes 1983).
Each of the main theories has been proposed as the explanation for aging and longevity. Most evolutionary theories seem rather speculative and a long way from the progress being made in molecular and cell biology. The other concepts that are more realistic are interconnected. It is justifiable to approach senescence along those lines provided the relationship between the different concepts is not forgotten, which can be summarized as follows: 23 Aging and Evolution RATE OF LIVING (Pearle) STRESS TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION (Selye) (Minot) EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES t (Medawar, Williams,Kirkwood) ENDOCRINE CLOCK t t MITOCHONDRIAL CLOCK (Everitt) t (Miguel) CELLDIVISION POTENTIAL t (Weismann) IMMUNE THEORY FREE RADICALS (Walford) (Hannan) CROSS LINKING (Bjorksten) Fundamental determinants of life span that are often bypassed in the evolutionary theories will be described in the following section .