By Anthony Charles Neville
This e-book tackles a tremendous unsolved challenge in developmental biology--how does chemistry create structure outdoor cells? The underlying speculation of this publication is that the fibers are oriented by means of self-assembly simply outdoors the cells in the course of a cellular liquid crystalline part sooner than stabilization; the writer demonstrates that the most common orientations of the fibers are plywood laminates (orthogonal and helicoidal), and as parallel fibers. eventually, he exhibits that those should be imitated within the laboratory through liquid crystalline chemical compounds. Many wonderful images will reduction the initiated in spotting a few of the sorts of fibers.
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Extra info for Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development beyond the Cell Membrane
Layers 1 • and 2 are nearest the reader and form an orthogonal pair. Subsequent pairs art rotated progressively clockwise, as shown by the arrows on the circles. The fibre directions are seen in oblique section, but the interleaving obscures /he two sets ofarced patterns. (8) As for part A, but with the even- and odd-numbered layers separated out to emphasize the two interleaved sets of arced patterns. Redrawn from Giraud el al. (1978). 17. The function of the twisted structure in fish scales is puzzling.
The early and deeper layers do not rotate; the later ones do. ) Data from only one of each succesis ve pair of orthogonal layers are plotted on the graph; the other points would be displaced by 90'. The angle of each alternate collagen layer is measured with reference to the dorsc ventral axis of the eye. The collagen shows an angular (helicoidal) shift in the outermost layers in all the kinds of vertebrates shown on the graph. All are clockwise, and moreover they are clockwise in both left and right eyes.
One of the many layers in the cyst wall is helicoidal (Patterson, 1979). Reproduced by kind permission of Dr. /. Newman (1990). 18. Scanning electron micrograph of a female cyst of a nematode worm: the potato root eelworm (Globodera rostochiensis). , 1972). These cysts are attached initially by the sucking mouthparts (projection on photograph> to the underground stems of potatoes. Photographed in Bristol University Zoology Department from material supplied uy Dr. B. Kerry of Rothamstead Experimental Station.