Biomonitoring of Trace Aquatic Contaminants by David J.H. Phillips

By David J.H. Phillips

Twenty years in the past, researchers wishing to spot infected parts in aquatic environments commonly took water samples, and analysed them badly (as we now have given that came across) for a number of "pollutants" that have been of topical notice on the time (and that could be quantified via the tools then available). this day, using aquatic organisms as biomonitors instead of water research has turn into typical, and plenty of nationwide and interna­ tional programmes exist world wide regarding such stories. We think that this pattern will proceed, and feature whole religion within the method (when it really is hired correctly). we are hoping that the subsequent textual content assists in a few half in achieving this objective, such that the standard of our most elementary international source -water - is satisfactorily safe sooner or later. DAVE PHILLIPS, PHIL RAINBOW England, March 1992 vii Acknowledgements Our thank you for contributions to this booklet are as a result of numerous contributors and teams, for various purposes. to begin with, a co-authored ebook is usually a triumph, and we belief that the next textual content is a suitable compromise of the perspectives of 2 person authors, on a posh and constructing subject. Secondly, a few of the principles herein have crystallised over the past twenty years because the box has grown, and we're separately and jointly thankful to a few researchers for his or her perception and assistance.

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After Forstner (1980). isotopes enter aquatic environments from the fallout from nuclear weapons testing and from accidents involving nuclear reactors. The latter are of particular concern, attracting huge media attention and much political debate. Eisenbud (1963) has provided an interesting review of several early case studies of nuclear testing events and accidents which gave rise to significant environmental contamination. Among these are the THE GREEN REVOLUTION 37 thermonuclear detonation of March 1954 at Bikini Atoll, which contaminated large areas of the Marshall Islands as well as affecting the crew of the Japanese fishing vessel Fukuru Maru, which was inadvertently not cleared from the test area.

1981; Chen and Hsu, 1986). Perhaps the best-known incident of widespread environmental contamination involving dioxins occurred at Seveso in northern Italy in 1976. , 1980; Strigini, 1983). On 10 July 1976, an exothermic reaction occurred in a chemical reactor producing trichlorophenol. A safety valve broke under the pressure from the reaction, and a cloud of contaminated material was released into the atmosphere. It was later established that the material released contained significant quantities of dioxins, including the extremely toxic 2,3,7,8tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin.

In 1955, a retaining dam was constructed at the site of the mine, and the discharge of contaminated sludge was reduced. Thereafter, the incidence of itai-itai disease diminished rapidly in the downstream area. Global concern over the potential for adverse public health impacts from cadmium has continued, however. , 1974; Nriagu, 1988). g. at Shipham in south-west England; see Sherlock, 1983). High-risk groups ingesting unusually large amounts of the element in particular types of seafoods or offal undoubtedly exist in some populations, and subclinical effects (mostly involving the liver and kidney cortex) may occur (CEC, 1978; Nriagu, 1988).

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