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The ﬁrst work is nine books of ‘applied’ botany and deals with the forms and classiﬁcation of plants, economic botany, agricultural methodologies, horticulture, etc. About 500 plants are described in detail by him and some botanical names such as Crataegus, Daucus and Asparagus used by him are in use even now. His second work deals with plant 7 growth and reproduction (Reed 1942). In this work, he classiﬁed plants into trees, shrubs and herbs. He also stated that plants could be annuals, biennials or perennials.
This phase of photosynthesis was called Dark reaction or Blackman’s reaction. P. E. O. D. R. Slack. It was also shown that C4 plants have Kranz anatomy which is characterized by the presence of special bundle sheath parenchyma cells around the vascular tissue of the leaf. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was subsequently discovered and found to be unique to succulent plants. The process of photorespiration was elucidated through the researches of Otto Warburg of Germany, who in 1920 discovered Warburg effect, where photosynthesis is inhibited by O2.
Several databases are now available. One of the very important and refreshing trends in botanical research that got initiated in the 1970s was the use/selection of model plants system on which research would be concentrated upon. This research would place emphasis on the molecular basis of all developmental/physiological/genetical events. The foremost among these model plants was Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) because of its several advantages, especially its short life cycle. The Arabidopsis genome project was initiated on a grand scale in 1990 as a multinational project and this 10-year effort ended in 2000 with great success.