Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis - Open

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It is obvious that rapid metabolite production requires high fluxes of carbon through the metabolic systems responsible for its synthesis. The rate of metabolite production, for a wide range of micm-organisms, has been shown to increase with decrease in growth efficiency ( Y r ). We will now consider the three classes of metabolites in relation to growth efficiency. In class 1 (ATP requiring), the rate of metabolite production is limited by the dissipirationof energy micro-organismscapacity to dissipate energy.

In 1992 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States addressed the issue of whether it mattered, for drug approval purposes, that a preparation of a synthetic chiral molecule (one or more asymmetric centers) contains not one but two compounds (racemates)the two mirror-image stereoisomers (individual enantiomers). 3 An example of a stereospecific biotransformation: resolution of bicyclic lactam. A and AI are an enantiomer pair as are B and BI. FDA gU*hs The FDA gave drug companies the choice of developing chiraldrugs as rammatf3 or as single enantiomers.

In general, the system provides a series of different environments. mu Iti-stream The multi-stream multi-stage system is a valuable means for obtaining steady-state growth when, in a simple chemostat, the steady-state is unstable eg when the growth-limiting substrate is also a growth inhibitor. This system can also be used to achieve stable conditions with maximum growth rate, an achievement that is impossible in a simple chemostat (substrate-limitedcontinuousculture). multi-stage biomass feedback Biomass feedback refers to increasing the concentration of biomass in the culture vessel.

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