Biotechnology of Aroma Compounds (Advances in Biochemical by R.G. Berger, Jan Bont, P.S.J. Cheetham, R. Croteau,

By R.G. Berger, Jan Bont, P.S.J. Cheetham, R. Croteau, I.L. Gatfield, J.-B. Gros, C. Larroche, D.J. Leak, D. McCaskill, P. Schreier, A.H. Scragg, G.K. Skouroumounis, M.J. van der Werf, P. Winterhalter

Discussing the biotechnology of aroma compounds, this paintings contains insurance of: enzymes and flavour biotechnology; glycoconjugated aroma compounds - occurence, function and biotechnological transformation; and customers for the bioengineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

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A well integrated use of microbiology, biochemistry, organic and analytical chemistry and biochemical engineering is essential. This should include the use of enzymes and microbial steps, in conjunction with complementary chemical steps. Input from marketing, sales, patent, and regulatory experts is essential if the process is to be commercialised successfully. - Also very important is a good appreciation of the process requirements for the successful isolation, concentration and purification of the products of bioreactions (down-stream processing).

The (R)-isomer predominates in peaches and most other fruit, but appreciable amounts of the (S)-isomer are found in some varieties of mango. Chemical synthesis of 7decalactone only yields a racemic mixture. Therefore, a microorganism capable of forming optically active 7-decalactone was sought by a number of companies by screening naturally occurring microorganisms. This search was aided greatly by the earlier observation by Japanese workers that an unlikely source, castor oil, provided a very good precursor molecule [-11].

The subsequent ripening of the cheeses is much more idiosyncratic. Additional surface ripening by bacteria or fungi occurs in many cases, adding much of the flavour characteristics of particular cheeses. Quite often a mixed population of strains is present with successive growths of different microbial strains. For instance, with Roquefort, Camembert, Brie and others, the initial growth on the surface is of yeasts such as Kluyveromyces lactis or fragilis, S. cerevisiae or Debaryomyces hansenii, which deaminate amino acids and oxidise lactic acid causing an increase in pH.

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