By Brian K. Hall
It really is properly written and finished publication for readers, who are looking to pass deep within the box of developmental skeletal biology. It presents amazing information regarding easy procedures of skeletongenesis and interspecies' evolution. regrettably there is not any an excessive amount of in regards to the final information of the underlying molecular bases yet evidently this used to be no longer the foremost target of the authors. notwithstanding, as repayment they regularly consult with acceptable titles for extra info.
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Extra info for Bones and Cartilage: Developmental Skeletal Biology
See Cole and Hall (2004a,b) for the beginnings of this story. 6. By ectopic I mean ‘out of place,’ or ‘extraskeletal,’ in the sense that the element develops outside the primary skeleton and so is extraskeletal in origin and location. Some elements such as sesamoids are ectopic in origin and initial location but then join with the primary skeleton. Ectopic osteogenesis is sometimes referred to as heterotopic osteogenesis. I use ectopic osteogenesis throughout. Ectopic mineralization – deposition of mineral without bone formation – differs from ectopic osteogenesis (Connor, 1983; Russell and Kanis, 1984).
C a Muschler and Midura (2002), p. 66, emphasis mine. See Trueta (1968) and de Boer (1988) for a history of bone grafting, Bert (1865) for cartilage for the first cartilage graft, and Meijer and Walia (1983) for a history of cartilage grafting. c Foetal bone was used as a transplant to replace massive bone loss by Siegal et al. (1977). An and Draughn (2000) evaluate the mechanical properties of bone, especially at the bone–implant interface. See Brooks (1971) and Singh et al. (1991) for vascularity of bone.
Nevertheless, cilia have been described on cartilage and bone cells. Cells that clearly are osteocytes in rat and chick calvariae possess cilia, usually one per cell, one speculation being that cilia function to move fluids through the canaliculi (Fig. 2). 4) this is not an implausible function. Cells that clearly are chondrocytes in mouse radii, and rat and canine articular chondrocytes, also each possesses a single cilium (Fig. a a See Federman and Nichols (1974) and Tenenbaum et al. (1986) for cilia on osteocytes, and Scherft and Daems (1967), Wilsman and Fletcher (1978) and Vidinov and Vasilev (1985) for cilia on chondrocytes.