Branching Morphogenesis (Molecular Biology Intelligence by Jamie Davies

By Jamie Davies

Branching morphogenesis, the construction of branched constructions within the physique, is a key characteristic of animal and plant improvement. This booklet brings jointly, for the 1st time, professional researchers engaged on a number of branching platforms to provide a state of the art view of the mechanisms that keep watch over branching morphogenesis. structures thought of diversity from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct platforms to whole physique plans, and ways variety from commentary via test to distinctive biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in evaluate of branching.

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Although the distance between branch points, or segment lengths, may vary for a given neuron, each neuronal cell-type exhibits a characteristic range of segment lengths for dendrites and the axon (segment length symbol). When the cross-sectional area decreases between branching segments, negative taper is produced, with positive taper instead resulting from increasing cross-sectional area between neurite branch points (gradient). The characteristic taper is established by the proportion of microtubules compartmentalized into successive branch segments, achieved in part through microtubule-associated protein binding and differential microtubule spacing or orientation (blue tubules).

Two non-mutually exclusive scenarios may account for these observations: first, cell-autonomous regulation, or exposure to certain epigenetic factors, may inidate a program of biochemical changes that gradually restricts neuronal sensitivity to branching cues; second, the progressive stabilization of individual branches may bias ongoing microtubule transport into these more mature processes. Similar analysis of axonal branching probability will be necessary to determine whether changes in the rate of branching morphogenesis follows stereotyped developmental trends for both neurite classes.

Semaphorin-mediated signaling occurs in a cell-type-specific manner through the differential activation of neuropilin (NP) family receptors. Consequently, the multifunctionality of semaphorin activity may be determined chiefly through the complement of available NP receptors and downstream effector molecules as a function of neuronal development. "^^^ In contrast, RGC axons in the developing J(>«^ptis visual system respond to SemaIIIA/NP-1 activity with transient growth cone collapse followed by robust axonal branching upon recovery.

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