Byzantine Naval Forces 1261-1461: The Roman Empire’s Last by Raffaele D'Amato

By Raffaele D'Amato

After the recapture of Constantinople, Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos was firm to convey glory again to the Byzantine Empire. to accomplish this, he validated an Imperial Fleet and raised new regiments of elite marine troops. This paintings offers a complete, illustrated advisor to the unit background and visual appeal of those males, who have been on the innovative of the final nice flourish of Byzantine naval energy. They gained victory after victory in campaigns during the 1260s-70s, and notwithstanding successive sessions of decline and partial resurrection undefined, those marine devices survived till the final sparkles of Byzantine resistance have been extinguished. Drawing upon early literary resources, the wealthy proof of interval illuminated manuscripts, frescoes and different iconography, Raffaele DAmato information the lasting legacy of the swansong of Byzantine naval energy.

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According to Sanudo, the victory of Demetrias opened the way for an immediate and energetic campaign to recapture Euboea and the Aegean archipelago for the Empire. 1275–80: Campaigns of Likarios After the victory at Demetrias the emperor was determined to expel all the Franks and Venetians from the Aegean islands. 434–435), and command of the fleet and leadership of the campaign was now entrusted to a Genoese pirate and adventurer named Licario (Hellenized to ‘Likarios’). 111). He first attacked Karystos, capital of the southern triarchy of Euboea, which he took after a long siege by land and sea.

Some are simply conical, constructed from one or two pieces of iron. To this category belongs a particular typology: rounded, often tall, and usually having a decorative finial at the apex. As a general rule helmets had attached mail or scale aventails, or were worn over a Western-style mail coif or a leather hood. The extension of the hood can sometimes be linked with descriptions referring to the employment of a gorget (peritrachelion) to protect the throat, of either mail or plate. ) Iron ‘war-hat’ helmet dated to 1222, from Saranda Kolones castle at Paphos, Cyprus; its shape is distorted by later earthquake damage to the building in which it was held.

These too were often fitted with hanging strips, or their surface was sewn and divided in separated sections, giving the impression of the old pteryges. When not sufficiently covered by a sleeved mail hauberk the upper arms were protected with either cuir-bouilli elements, or extended parts of the protective garments worn over or under the main body armour. Gauntlets or cheroptia, made in both Western and Eastern styles, protected the hands of heavily armoured embarked troops and of commanders.

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