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Additional resources for Chemical Crystallography - An Intro to Optical and X-Ray Methods
Ceramic solid electrolyte sensors are typically designed for high-temperature applications such as stack gas, combustion process, and automotive engine exhaust. The solid electrolyte provides ionic conduction and also supports the electrodes. The interface between the solid electrolyte and the electrode plays an important role in the resulting gas sensor’s analytical characteristics. 66 An AGS incorporating solid electrolytes made from rare earth elements was also designed for high temperature, and Stetter and Cao67 described an amperometric sensor for the detection of halogenated compounds such as chloropentafluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, and iodobenzene.
5 The original Clark sensor was first introduced to measure the oxygen content in blood samples, and the major innovation was to cover the shiny platinum button WE cathode with cellophane. Unlike previously designed O2 sensors, which employed a bare platinum electrode, the Clark sensor showed enhanced selectivity for oxygen due to the presence of the cellophane membrane, which allowed O2 to penetrate but prevented interferences from red blood cells and some other gases. 5 As demonstrated by Clark, a membrane diffusion barrier for the working electrode offers several advantages over a bare electrode.
81 This electrochemical sensor depends on the transfer of charge from one electrode to another electrode. The gases and vapors introduced to this sensor array are NO2, HCN, HCl, Cl2, acetone, and benzene in parts per million (ppm) concentration levels in dry air. These are toxic gases and vapors that are of interest to both military and civilian personnel in defense applications, as well as in industry process and environmental monitoring. 20 For many years, it was generally reported that potentiometric sensors were more easily microfabricated because the signal size did not depend at all on the electrode size while amperometric sensor currents were directly proportional to electrode size.