By Eric W. Wolff (auth.), Eric W. Wolff, Roger C. Bales (eds.)
Polar ice cores have supplied large advances in our wisdom of earlier weather switch. in addition they include an archive of geochemical info, that could definitely delineate a number of the forcing components that govern weather switch. even if, our skill to interpret those info is significantly curtailed through lack of information of the approaches governing the move of chemical species from the air to the snow. This e-book outlines the aptitude and difficulties of ice center chemistry and discusses the procedures excited by air-snow move. It supplies the nation of present wisdom and an time table for destiny research.
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Extra info for Chemical Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Polar Snow
40 REFERENCES Borys, RD, Del Vecchio, D, Jaffrezo, JL, Dibb, JE, Mitchell, DL (1992) Field observation, measurements and preliminary results from a study of wet deposition processes influencing snow and ice chemistry at Summit, Greenland. In "Precipitation Scavenging and atmosphere-surface exchanges", Schwartz and Slinn eds, 1705-1718 Conklin, MH, and Bales, RC (1993) S02 uptake on ice spheres: Liquid nature of the ice-air interface. J Geophys Res 98:16,851-16,855 Cragin, JM, Herron, MM, Langway, CC, and Klouda, G (1977) Interhemispheric comparison of changes in the composition of atmospheric precipitation during the late cenozoic era.
An additional complex it y is introduced for these weak acids in the form of a possible role of the acidity of the atmosphere either on the incorporation mode or on the efficiency of post depositi ona l clTects. The acidity of the atmosphere over Greenland has been enhanced particularly after I 94(), as depicted in Figure 4, as a result of enhanced levels of sulfate and nitrate (Figure 2) resulting from grow ing human emissions of S02 and nitrogen oxides. The role of pH on carboxy lic acids conte nt of Summit snow layers can be seen in Figure 5, where we report ratios (denoted HCOO/HCOO'" and CH,COO'ICH)COO) of formate and acetate concentr:ltions ill snow la ye rs from the pre-industrial era containing enhanced ac idity following volcanic activity to the respective background levels (denoted HCOO'" and CHrOO) as a I'unction of the pH.
Furthermore, the increase between II and 5 kyrs BP and decrease between 5 kyrs BP and present time of formate ice levels (Figure 10) cannot be attributed to changes of the air snow relationship. As argued by Legrand and De Angelis  such a record suggests changes in atmospheric levels in response to past climate, whose changes induced variations in the intensity of vegetation emissions from North America. Such emissions have been weakened during the ice age because of the large expansion of the Laurentide ice sheet over North America.