By Harold F. Hemond
The 3rd version of Chemical destiny and shipping within the Environment explains the elemental rules of mass delivery, chemical partitioning, and chemical/biological ameliorations in floor waters, in soil and groundwater, and in air. each one of those 3 significant environmental media is brought via descriptive overviews, by means of a presentation of the controlling actual, chemical, and organic methods. The textual content emphasizes intuitively established mathematical versions for chemical delivery and adjustments within the surroundings, and serves either as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate classes in environmental technology and engineering, and as a typical reference for environmental practitioners.
- Includes many labored examples in addition to large routines on the finish of every chapter
- Illustrates the interconnections and similarities between environmental media via its assurance of floor waters, the subsurface, and the atmosphere
- Written and arranged concisely to map to a single-semester course
- Discusses and builds upon primary concepts, ensuring that the cloth is on the market to readers who do not need an in depth historical past in environmental science
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Extra info for Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment
1990), Howard (1989-1991), Mackay and Shiu (1981), and Hine and Mookerjee (1975). 3 lists Henry’s law constants for some common chemicals. , Stumm and Morgan (1996, p. 213). In that reference, KH is equivalent to 1/H as H is defined in this textbook. When H is not tabulated, it can be estimated by dividing the vapor pressure of a chemical at a particular temperature by its aqueous solubility at that temperature. Henry’s law constants generally increase with increased temperature, primarily due to the significant temperature dependency of chemical vapor pressures; as previously mentioned, solubility is less sensitive to the range of temperatures normally found in the environment.
Thus, Eq. 15) The acidity of an aqueous solution is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions. This concentration is usually expressed by the term pH, which is approximately equal to Àlog[Hþ]. ) At a pH of 7, as a consequence of Eq. 15), there are equal concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions; a pH of 7 is called a neutral pH. Waters having a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions have a pH less than 7 and are acidic; waters having a lower concentration of hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions are basic (or alkaline) and have a pH greater than 7.
Although temperature is frequently neglected in approximate calculations, for maximum accuracy, equilibrium constants must be corrected for the temperature of the chemical system of interest. Adapted from Morel and Hering (1993). Copyright © 1993, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6 BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 33 As written, H2O is a reactant (also called an educt) and Hþ and OHÀ are products. The equilibrium constant K for Eq. 4 M, into a revised equilibrium constant because its value is negligibly affected by the mass of dissolved chemicals or by self-ionization.