Chemical Leavening Agents by Ernst Brose, Gunter Becker, Wolfgang Bouchain, Christiane

By Ernst Brose, Gunter Becker, Wolfgang Bouchain, Christiane Sprintz

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This molecule has only three elements of symmetry, for example, E + C 3 + σ h. • C3 axis of symmetry passes through center of molecule perpendicular to the plane of the molecule. σh plane is a molecular plane, which is perpendicular to the principal axis of symmetry, C3. Symmetry 43 (viii) Ru (1, 10-phenanthroline)2 Cl2 • Cis-isomer of the complex has only one C2 axis, which bisects the Cl-Ru-Cl angle. Therefore, this low symmetry molecule has E + C2 symmetry elements. • In trans-isomer of the complex, two phenanthroline rings are coplanar.

This element of symmetry is represented by the symbol σ. The corresponding operation to a mirror plane is reflection. It should be noted that the operation of reflection gives a configuration equivalent to original one. If the operation is carried out twice on the molecule, then we get the original configuration. Hence, a mirror plane generates only one distinct operation σn = σ, if n is odd and σn = E, if n is even. Plane of symmetry and the corresponding reflection operation both; are denoted by σ.

These generate C3 and C32 operations, which have been already counted with S6. (vi) 15 C2 – Each of these C2 axes bisects opposite edges. These axes generate 15 C2 operations. (vii) There are 15 mirror planes, each one of them contains two C2 axes and two C5 axes. They generate 15 reflection operations. (viii) In all, there are 120 elements and these are given by E, 12 C5, 12 C52 , 20 C3, 15 C2, i, 12 S10, 20 S6 and 15 σ. These elements constitute a group that is called Ih group.

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