By Oded Peri
A big factor in 19th-century global politics, the query of Christianity's holiest shrines in Jerusalem is roofed through a wide physique of literature. such a lot of this scholarship, notwithstanding, concentrates at the interval while the query of the Holy websites has already developed from a household Ottoman challenge into an all-European factor. less is understood approximately this challenge in past instances, while the Ottoman Empire used to be nonetheless a dominant energy in a position to suggest suggestions freed from international interference and outdoors pressures. in response to professional Ottoman files present in the registers of the kadi's courtroom in Jerusalem in addition to the best Ministry's data in Istanbul, this examine deals an intensive therapy of Ottoman coverage with admire to the Holy websites in the course of the first centuries of Ottoman rule in Jerusalem. It makes a speciality of 3 vital concerns: (a) The criminal prestige of the Holy websites below Ottoman rule; (b) The Ottoman country and the inter-church fight over the Holy websites; (c) The Holy websites as a resource of source of revenue to the Ottoman kingdom. The dialogue of those matters sheds new gentle on essentially the most imprecise and arguable chapters within the heritage of Christianity lower than Islam in Jerusalem.
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Extra resources for Christianity Under Islam in Jerusalem: The Question of the Holy Sites in Early Ottoman Times
In the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem there was no room for a Byzantine patriarch, who was indeed displaced by a Latin one. Moreover, the adherents of the Greek Orthodox and the other Eastern-rite churches were exposed to Latin proselytizing efforts and made subordinate to the authority of Roman Catholic priests. 70 Change came only with the Mamluk conquest of Jerusalem in 1244, and was stamped by the final annihilation, in 1291, of the Latin political presence in the Holy Land. The Muslim victory and the demise of the Latin Kingdom made it possible for the Eastern-rite churches to recover their rights in the Holy Sites.
Of special interest is the fact that some of these travelers were also aware of the concurrent increase in the number of Jerusalem's Armenians. 27 There were also the Nestorians, but it is admittedly difficult to see in the records of two taxpayers any evidence of the formation of a Nestorian community in seventeenth-century Jerusalem. 28 For example, Halil veled-i Siileyman, Ilyas veled-i Mansur, Mansur veled-i Hanna, Ibrahim veled-i Ni'ma, etc. 31 The Maronites embraced Catholicism en masse as early as the twelfth century.
At the bottom of the scale were the Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholics who appear to have been the most economically deprived. The Jacobite Syrians and the Copts seem to have been slightly better off, as may be inferred from their position in the middle of this scale. These findings should not come as a surprise: Table 10 corroborates the predictable relationship between the professional structure of each community (see Table 7) and its economic standing. But were the differences significant?