By Biray Kolluoglu, Meltem Toksöz
In this bold inter-disciplinary learn, the authors learn the relationships among the japanese Mediterranean port towns and their hinterlands in addition to inland and provincial towns from many alternative views - political, fiscal, foreign and ecological - with no prioritizing both Ottoman Anatolia, or the Ottoman Balkans, or the Arab provinces that allows you to ponder the japanese Mediterranean global as a coherent complete. via its penetrating research of some of the networks that hooked up the ports and cities of the Mediterranean and their population in the course of the Ottoman interval, towns of the Mediterranean provides the quarter as a unified and dynamic neighborhood and paves the best way for a brand new figuring out of the subject.
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Extra info for Cities of the Mediterranean: From the Ottomans to the Present Day
They initiated investment in land at a time when in the valleys and coastal zones of the Mediterranean low-lying marshy landscapes were reappearing and, even worse, spreading. Roughly from the 1550s onwards, a great number of coastal and inland plains dotting the Mediterranean basin started to turn into marshlands. The sown fields of Maremma in Tuscany were devastated by floods in 1590. The same happened on the western end of the basin, in Andalusia, where flooding turned into a perennial problem as the sixteenth century came to a close.
At the height of grain prices at the turn of the seventeenth century, the Roman countryside hence presented a landscape which stood apart from the rest of the region, with the possible exception of the Lower Languedoc, where marshy areas near Arles, Narbonne, and Fréjus were drained, albeit on a limited scale. As long as money was invested in agriculture, reclaiming lands from marshes and swamps remained a priority. By the same token, however, the fall in grain prices slowed down the return of money to land and with it the attempts to reclaim drained land.
This northbound shift in the region’s center of gravity thus constituted the second spatial transformation shaping the Eastern Mediterranean. In this shift, the growing significance of the overland trade which spanned the breadth of the Ottoman Empire and terminated in İzmir, its principal port of disembarkation, played a role to the detriment of the portcities in the Levant. 6 Underlying this sea change was the transformation that the world-economy underwent from the 1560s onwards, with the gradual emergence of the Baltic and the North Sea as its new centers of 26 CITIES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN gravity, or to be more precise, with the rise and consolidation of the Pax Neerlandica.