By Dr. Markus Graf, Dr. Diego Barrettino, Prof. Dr. Henry P. Baltes, Prof. Dr. Andreas Hierlemann (auth.)
This is the 1st complete booklet on microhotplate-based chemical sensor structures in CMOS-technology. It covers all features of profitable sensor prototyping: concept of transducer modelling, microelectronics layout issues, approach layout matters, and concerns regarding method and gadget microfabrication, packaging, and checking out. a number of assorted hotplates for various operation stipulations is special and a family members of metal-oxide-covered microhotplate-based microsensor platforms with expanding complexity is gifted. those structures belong to a brand new new release of chemical microsensors and symbolize examples of the winning integration of nanomaterials, microtechnology and microelectronics.
The publication presents scholars, scientists and engineers with an obtainable creation to the sector of microhotplate-based chemical sensing, with the entire priceless basic wisdom integrated. past that, it additionally presents distinct details on all vital concerns touching on advanced high-performance CMOS chemical microsensor structures; as a result it is going to even be precious to specialists already accustomed to the field.
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Additional resources for CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors
The island remains an important design feature, especially for the use of thin-ﬁlm sensitive layers, where the additional heat spreading eﬀect of the sensor materials is small. 1 Design Considerations The circular microhotplate presented in Sect. 1 features an upper sensor operating temperature limit of C, which is imposed by the CMOS metallization. At higher temperatures, electromigration, especially in the heater structures, will occur, 44 4 Microhotplates in CMOS Technology 15 T2 T3 T4 (Ti–T1)/T1 [%] 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 T1 [°C] 250 300 350 Fig.
The diﬀerential – and more general – form of Eq. 34) T The considerations so far rely on constant heating power, and the way how this power is applied to the microhotplate does not play a role. In fact, a monolithically integrated control circuitry does not apply constant power but acts as an adjustable current source. Moreover, for measuring the thermal time constant experimentally, either a rectangular voltage or rectangular current pulse is applied. 5 AHDL-Model for System Simulations 27 diﬀers from the “real” thermal time constant as deﬁned by Eqs.
The conclusion from the results of this chapter is, that a silicon island fabricated by ECE is not absolutely necessary, if a relative temperature diﬀerence of 5% within the active area between the electrodes is acceptable. A microhotplate with a dielectric membrane and a polysilicon heat spreader in the center features suﬃcient temperature homogeneity. Moreover, the tin-oxide droplet serves as additional heat spreader and smoothes out temperature gradients. In conclusion, a simple KOH-etching process without ECE is applicable for future microhotplate designs, although the best temperature homogeneity is achieved with the silicon island heat spreader.