By John M. Chalmers, Robert J. Meier
Written through specialist participants from the tutorial and commercial sectors, this ebook provides conventional and smooth methods to polymer characterization and research. The emphasis is on pragmatics, challenge fixing and estate choice; real-world functions offer a context for key ideas. The characterizations specialise in natural polymer and polymer product microstructure and composition.
- Approaches molecular characterization and research of polymers from the point of view of problem-solving and polymer estate characterization, instead of from a strategy championing approach
- Focuses on delivering a way to ascertaining the optimal procedure or technique(s) to resolve a problem/measure a estate, and thereby boost an analytical competence within the molecular characterization and research of real-world polymer products
- Provides history on polymer chemistry and microstructure, discussions of polymer chain, morphology, degradation, and product failure and additive research, and considers the assisting roles of modeling and high-throughput analysis
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Additional resources for Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Polymers
Elsevier Science, New York, 1999. I. ), Polymers: Polymer Characterization and Analysis, Wiley, New York, 1990. I. Kroschwitz, Concise Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1998. 15 Polymers and Rubbers. A. ), Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, Wiley, Chichester, 2002. F. , Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004. J. Bart, Additives in Polymers: Industrial Analysis and Applications, Wiley, Chichester, 2005. 18 J. Scheirs, Compositional and Failure Analysis of Polymers: A Practical Approach, Wiley, Chichester, 2000.
In polymers crystallised from the melt, lamellae were observed by electron microscopy, whose thickness are of the same order of magnitude as ‘‘single crystals’’ obtained from solution (Figure 5). Crystal ‘‘unit cells’’ within these lamellae are comparable to those of single crystals and the chains are also oriented in the thickness direction. Therefore, the same model of chain folding was applied to melt-crystallised polymers. However, lamellae are, by far, less perfect structures than ‘‘single crystals’’ and each individual polymer chain gives rise to only a limited number of ‘‘folds’’, its remaining part (the so-called ‘‘tie’’) protrudes from the lamella and remains in an amorphous phase.
The determination of the ‘‘unit cell’’ led to the conclusion that, within such a single crystal, one macromolecule encompasses many ‘‘unit cells’’, which, itself, includes only one or a few ‘‘repeat units’’. Moreover, upon examination by electron diffraction, it appeared also that in these ‘‘single crystals’’, the chain axis was perpendicular to the largest faces, thus, that the chains are oriented in the ‘‘thickness’’ direction. However, as such thicknesses are much smaller than extended-chain lengths, a model of ‘‘chain folding’’ was established for forming such polymer crystals (Figure 4).