By Terje Simonsen, Jarle Aarbakke, Ian Kay
Protecting either the elemental ideas and the medical points of pharmacology, this e-book presents causes of ways medicines act, and it appears to be like at their results and use in a number of events. It additionally covers drug motion in particular stipulations, and comes in handy for nursing, biomedical, and scientific technology students.
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E. LD50/ED50. Cytotoxic agents, used in cancer chemotherapy, are examples of drugs where there is little difference between the therapeutic and toxic dose. Thus cytotoxic agents are said to have a small therapeutic index. A high therapeutic index is desirable, and means that a large dose is necessary in order for a person to die from the drug. Penicillin is an example of a drug with a high therapeutic index. 14 Dose–effect curves for methotrexate. When using high-dose methotrexate in the treatment of leukaemia in children, large doses are administered to eradicate the cancer cells.
The liver Drugs absorbed from the intestine pass to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. From the liver, the blood enters the inferior vena cava. If the liver has a large capacity to metabolize, and thereby eliminate, some of the drug from the blood, a smaller amount Absorption 43 of drug will be passed into the systemic circulation. 7. Drugs that are absorbed from the intestine can be eliminated following this first passage through the liver before they are distributed in the blood to different tissues in the body.
An important concept is the idea of the ‘half-life’ of a substance, as this indicates how rapidly a drug is eliminated from the body. The water and lipid (fat) solubility of drugs is important in understanding the drug’s movement through different biological membranes, and the drug’s distribution in different tissues in the body. Knowledge of the blood supply to the liver and kidneys is vital for understanding how these organs contribute to the elimination of drugs from the body. 1. 1 Absorption, distribution and elimination.